Drilling equipment includes sets of drilling equipment, specified tools and instrument for drilling in a broad sense. According to functions, they can be classified into nine parts: power system, transmission system, lifting system, compressed air source and pneumatic control system, instrumentation and detection system, the drilling fluid circulation and purification system, power supply system, hydraulic system and wellhead tools. Generally, diesel drive, electric drive and hydraulic drive are the most common driving type. And there are many other classification methods according to different category standards.
Drilling equipment is a must in large drilling engineering, and this is inseparable from its good performance, which greatly enhance the drilling speed and efficiency. Especially in those remote areas, the use of drilling equipment is more extensive. However, not many people have a good understanding of drilling equipment working principle. Here is a description of it to everyone, and hope this will do you some help.
Drilling equipment employs a working principle named reverse circulating pump suction. In the pressure of atmosphere, the circulating fluid from the sedimentation tank, through the return ditch, goes along the annular gap and finally flow to the bottom of well. At the same time, the rotary table drives the drill pipe, making the drilling bit spinning with adjustable speed, to cut or enlarge a hole calculated in cross-section. The negative pressure created by the suction of the mud pump can let mud debris pushed into the cavity of drill, then rise to tap, flow into the sedimentation tank through mud pump. The circulating fluid after precipitating continues to flow into the mission pump, and the process starts all over again, forming the drilling equipment reverse working circulation.
Mud or water enters in drill pipe then out the wellhead is positive circulation drilling equipment. And similarly, mud or water enters in wellhead then out the drill pipe is reverse circulation drilling equipment. Positive or reserve circulation means drilling fluid (mud or water) how to complete a cycle, they have different priorities. Drilling equipment will produce muck and stone pieces etc while drilling, they can be brought to the ground by mud, after precipitating mud will go back to the drilling rig, the circulation continues until the hole is formed, and this is how positive circulation drilling equipment works. But it can’t remove big stone pieces because of the size limit of drilling bit, in such case you need to choose reverse circulation.
As technology advances, more and more fields put drilling equipment into practice, like hydrogeological generalized survey, geothermal drilling and others. With the government attached great importance to the exploration of petroleum, drilling equipment is expected to have better performance under difficult conditions to adapting the changes and development of social environment.