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Working Concepts of Centrifugal Pump

Posted by:    Time:2014-04-16     click:

Centrifugal pumps are widely used in many hydraulic systems since they offer favorable convenience in moving fluid through pipe line. What is the centrifugal pump working principle do they employ? The rudimentary principle is centrifugal force which can make the object move in a circular way and pull it out of the central axis. The force can be regulate through the pumping unit and adjust pressure and motion, the hydraulic system is formed by several centrifugal pumping.

Usually the centrifugal pump is based around a tank full of fluid or liquid, within the tank, a special unit run fast in rotary motion and therefore the liquid will spin with the centrifugal force and then transported from the outlet. The liquid being discharged make it vacuum and more liquid will be forced to get out of the tank by atmospheric pressure. Most centrifugal pumps use impellers or vanes to create rotary motion. Systems with centrifugal pump do not have a fixed form; they are different according to capacity and requirement.

Centrifugal pump with rotary vane can be attached to shaft and a pulley unit can agitate the task with rotational movement. When it is filled with liquid, the pulley starts to rotate at high speed. Centrifugal pump working principle has similarity with other pumps which take mechanical energy from motor and the conversion of one form of energy into another form. It also depends on fluid or liquid being moved, when they are against the gravity, mechanical energy will change into potential one. In the same way, when pressure change, mechanical energy will change to kinetic energy. There are the basic centrifugal pumps working principle, but the latest one has slightly changed. The impeller serves as spinning part and can be straight and curbed blades. The later one can exert outward force as well and provide higher efficiency. But the water will not keep moving outward since it will be forced upward and overflow. Water overflow can produce kinetic energy. If water is flowing into the tank continuously, the energy can be maintained.

As mentioned before, there are two types of impeller, straight and curved one. With straight impeller, water will get into the tank through the inlet of the impeller. Once the impeller moves, water spin and centrifugal force produced. Curved impeller put the liquid toward the rim of the tank in spiral pattern and directed into the channel. Impeller can be classified into another two types: single suction and double suction. The single type is simpler and liquid can be inhaled from only one side while the double type has better ability and can work simultaneously. From the aspect of leaf geometric shape, centrifugal pump can be fall into sweepback, radial and procuration. The first type is the most common one because it can better transfer static pressure into kinetic energy.

Guide wheel is another important component of centrifugal pump besides impeller. Because liquid will usually flow out, a guide wheel is applied to reduce the energy loss. It can form a continuous expansion of liquid flow and kinetic energy can transform to static pressure energy.

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