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Principle and Application of Drilling Equipment

Posted by:    Time:2014-12-03     click:

Works by pump suction reverse circulation drilling equipment. It of work principle is: under the atmospheric pressure of role, cycle liquid by precipitation pool by back ditch along well hole of ring clearance stream to bottom, because at this time of turntable drive drill, led drill rotating for drilling, by mud pumping suck established of negative pressure put debris mud inhalation drill within cavity, subsequently rose to taps, by mud row into precipitation pool, precipitation of cycle liquid continues to inflow wells hole, such so cycle, formed has anti-cycle of drilling work.

Mud or water entered through the drill pipe, flowing from the wellhead is normal circulation drilling machines. Mud or water from the drill pipe, inflow from the well head is reverse circulation drilling machines. Positive and negative cycle refers to the drilling fluid (mud or water) loop said in a drilling machine, drilling machine drill bits when drilling would produce waste, such as Standard Chartered, through positive and negative cycles can be brought to the ground by mud slag, and after sedimentation tank sedimentation mud back drilling. Keep circulating, the last hole. Reverse circulation can be taken out of the larger diameter of slag.

Rotating system devices are mounted on platforms, by Kelly driven Rotary drilling drill and drill bit. When using a down hole drilling tools driven drill bits when rotating dial to withstand reverse torque

Hoisting system of main equipment consists of winches, derricks, cranes, traveling block, big hooks, wire rope composed a set of lifting equipment. Under winch is mainly used for drilling, pressure control when drilling with casing and drill. Placement of cranes and Derricks used to fly the traveling block, hooks and other lifting equipment and tools, as well as, storage tubes columns under. Cranes and traveling block is a compound pulley device to reduce tension of hoist wire rope, large and medium size rig complex pulley wire rope for 8~12 unit.

Mud circulation system is composed of mud pumps, high pressure slurry pipelines, hoses, taps, Drill string and mud solids control equipment and other components. The functions are: maintenance of mud circulation, to flush the bottom hole, passing high pressure mud energy into the bottom hole.

Slurry pump inhaling mud from a mud pool, through Desander, hoses, taps into the drill mud, drill water hole rush to the bottom, carrying bottom detritus wellhead returned from the drill string and borehole wall of the annulus. There is twin-cylinder with the mud pumps, triplex single-acting and double-acting piston two types, which has the advantage of emission uniformity, high pressure, pressure fluctuation, small size, light weight, convenient replacement of wearing parts, maintenance is simple. Tap to connect does not rotate to rotate the drill string and the hoses, and maintaining mud cycle.

Solids control equipment available to clean wells in mud returning unwanted solid particles. Commonly used devices include Shaker, desander, desilter and the degasser and centrifuge. The late 70 's, began using the automatic preparation of slurry systems, combined with well control equipment, well bore at any time can be reliably controlled, automatically maintain a constant proportion of mud. When the blowout shows up, it can automatically adjust the mud density and other properties.

Control system makes the unit by drilling process needs coordinated work. Includes power generator, winches, turntable, mud pumps, such as start, stop, speed, car control, reversing, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic pressure, electric control and computers control the direction of development.

Well control equipment is an important guarantee safe drilling for oil and gas drilling equipment, including blowout preventers, block manifold, manifold pressure, mud-gas separator, and so on. Inside the blowout preventer to stop the well spewed mud and oil, gas and water, Blowout preventers have a RAM blowout preventer, rotating blowout preventer and universal types such as blowout preventers, installed in the rig's well head, respectively, for closed or between the casing and the annulus full of drill head. In addition, drill inside the blowout preventer used to closed internal space of drill. Modern drilling equipment are equipped with several different types of the blowout preventer, make up the wellhead blowout preventers groups that control different drilling situations.

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