Generally speaking, the drilling equipment in drilling, includes the complete ground equipment used in drilling, special drilling tools and the drilling instrument. According to the function, the equipment is divided into the systems of spinning, promoting, circulating, powering, transmitting and controlling.
The spinning system
The main equipment of the system is the turn plate which fixed on the wellhead of the drill floor. When spinning, the drill string and the drill worm their way to the ground by kelly bar. When using the downhole motor to drive the drill spinning, the turn plate is used to undertake reaction torque.
The promoting system
The promoting system is applied to snub in drilling tools, running casing, control bit weight and send pressure. The drilling machine is fixed of a erecting equipment, which consists of winch, derrick screen , crown block, traveling block, big hook, steel wire rope. The winch is functioning to snub in the drilling tools, running casings and control bit weight when drilling. The derrick is used to place crown block and hang the traveling block, big hook and other promoting equipment and tools. Also it is used to TOOH and store tubular column. Crown block and traveling block is a set of block pulley equipment which is available for reducing the tension of the winch cable.
Mud circulating system
Mud circulating system is made of slush pump, high pressure slurry pipeline, faucet, drilling string and the solids control of mud. The function is to maintain the circulating of the mud, wash the shaft bottom, and pass the energy of mud discharge to the shaft bottom. The slush pump suct mud from the mud pit, and injecting to the drilling string through the slurry pipeline on the ground, the water hose and the tap, then rushing to the shaft bottom by the bit port carry the downhole cuttings to the mouth of the well. The tap is used to connect the rotatable drilling string and the dead water hose for maintaining circulating. Solids control equipment is to remove the useless solids from the mud which returning from the well.
The powering and transmitting system
The system contains power machine and the drive unit. The power machine mainly uses diesel engine, electronic and gas turbine. The drive unit has some kinds, such as using mechanical drive with chains, belts, toothed gear, using hydraulic transmission, using electric drive to pass the motive power to the winch, turntable, slush pump and so one.
The controlling system
The controlling system make each part work sequentially according to the welling drilling. Including the control of speeding, turning and others.
Drilling equipment is a very important equipment in the drilling of the oil field. Also it is a great invention in life which brings convenience.